20 April 2010


Today, being 4/20 is a good day to memorialize things that are wasted. Few things are a great waste than a dead language, and the Americans have many. The list below via Wikipedia, memoralizes these lost culutures, most of which will never merit so much as a television special to remember them for future generations:

South America

Although both North and Central America are very diverse areas, South America has a linguistic diversity rivalled by only a few other places in the world with approximately 350 languages still spoken and an estimated 1,500 languages at first European contact.

The situation of language documentation and classification into genetic families is not as advanced as in North America (which is relatively well-studied in many areas). . . . it is not likely that the number of specialists in SA Indian languages will increase fast enough to document most of the surviving SA languages before they go out of use, as most of them unavoidably will. . .

It is fair to say that SA and New Guinea are linguistically the poorest documented parts of the world. However, in the early 1960s fairly systematic efforts were launched in Papua New Guinea, and that area – much smaller than SA, to be sure – is in general much better documented than any part of indigenous SA of comparable size.
As a result, many relationships between languages and language families have not been determined and some of those relationships that have been proposed are on somewhat shaky ground."

Exitinct indigienous language families in the Americas:

1.Aguano †
2.Alagüilac (Guatemala)'†
3.Andaquí (also known as Andaqui, Andakí) †
4.Andoquero †
5.Arauan (9) †
6.Baenan (Brazil: Bahia) (also known as Baenán, Baenã) †
7.Betoi (Colombia) (also known as Betoy, Jirara) †
8.Catacaoan (also known as Katakáoan) †
9.Charruan (also known as Charrúan) †
10.Chimuan (3) †
11.Cholonan †
12.Chorotega (Costa Rica) †
13.Coahuilteco †
14.Comecrudan (Texas & Mexico) (3) †
15.Cotoname †
16.Cuitlatec (Mexico: Guerrero) †)
17.Coeruna (Brazil) †
18.Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina) (also known as Atacama, Atakama, Atacameño, Lipe, Kunsa) †
19.Esmeraldeño (also known as Esmeralda, Takame) †
20.Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão) †
21.Gorgotoqui (Bolivia) †
22.Guajiboan (4) (also known as Wahívoan) †
23.Guamo (Venezuela) (also known as Wamo) †
24.Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco) †
25.Huarpe (also known as Warpe) †
26.Jirajaran (3) (also known as Hiraháran, Jirajarano, Jirajarana) †
27.Jeikó †
28.Kamakanan †
29.Karirí (Brazil: Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará) †
30.Katembrí †
31.Kukurá (Brazil: Mato Grosso) †
32.Matanawí †
33.Mocana (Colombia: Tubará) †
34.Mochita †
35.Muzo (Colombia) †
36.Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco) †
37.Old Catío-Nutabe (Colombia) †
28.Omurano (Peru) (also known as Mayna, Mumurana, Numurana, Maina, Rimachu, Roamaina, Umurano) †
39.Otí (Brazil: São Paulo) †
40.Otomacoan (2) †
41.Pakarara †
43.Panche †
44.Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco) †
45.Pantagora †
46.Peba-Yaguan (2) (also known as Yaguan, Yáwan, Peban) †
47.Puelche (Chile) (also known as Guenaken, Gennaken, Pampa, Pehuenche, Ranquelche) †
48.Puquina (Bolivia) †
49.Purian (2) †
50.Sechura language (Atalan, Sec) †
51.Solano †
52.Tairona (Colombia) †
53.Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte) †
54.Taruma †
55.Tequiraca (Peru) (also known as Tekiraka, Avishiri) †
56.Teushen † (Patagonia, Argentina)
57.Timotean (2) †
58.Tiniguan (2) (also known as Tiníwan, pamigua) †
59.Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco) †
60.Wakona †
61.Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco) (also known as Shokó) †
62.Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba) †
63.Yuri (Colombia, Brazil) (also known as Carabayo, Jurí) †
64.Yurumanguí (Colombia) (also known as Yurimangui, Yurimangi) †
65.Adai †
66.Alsean (2) †
67.Atakapa †
68.Beothuk †
69.Cayuse †
70.Chimariko †
71.Chitimacha †
72.Chumashan (6) †
73.Coahuilteco †
74.Comecrudan (United States & Mexico) (3) †
75.Coosan (2) †
76.Cotoname †
77.Esselen †
78.Kalapuyan (3) †
79.Karankawa †
80.Natchez †
81.Salinan †
82.Shastan (4) †
83.Siuslaw †
84.Solano †
85.Takelma †
86.Timucua †
87.Tonkawa †
88.Tunica †
89.Yana †
90.Yuki-Wappo (2) † disputed

Living indigienous languagse families of South America:

1.Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia) (also known as Aikanã, Tubarão)
2.Andoque (Colombia, Peru) (also known as Andoke)
3.Arutani-Sape (2) (also known as Arutani-sapé)
4.Aushiri (also known as Auxira)
5.Aymaran (3)
6.Barbacoan (8)
8.Botocudoan (3) (also known as Aimoré)
9.Cahuapanan (2) (also known as Jebero, Kawapánan)
10.Camsá (Colombia) (also known as Sibundoy, Coche)
11.Candoshi (also known as Maina, Kandoshi)
12.Canichana (Bolivia) (also known as Canesi, Kanichana)
14.Cariban (29) (also known as Caribe, Carib)
15.Cayubaba (Bolivia)
16.Chapacura-Wanham (9) (also known as Chapacuran, Txapakúran)
17.Chibchan (Central America & South America) (22)
19.Chipaya-Uru languages (also known as Uru-Chipaya)
19.Choco (10) (also known as Chocoan)
20.Chon (2) (also known as Patagonian
21.Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador)
23.Culle (Peru) (also known as Culli, Linga, Kulyi)
25.Guaicuruan (7) (also known as Guaykuruan, Waikurúan)
27.Harakmbut (2) (also known as Tuyoneri)
28.Hodï (Venezuela) (also known as Jotí, Hoti, Waruwaru)
29.Huaorani (Ecuador, Peru) (also known as Auca, Huaorani, Wao, Auka, Sabela, Waorani, Waodani)
30.Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
31.Itonama (Bolivia) (also known as Saramo, Machoto)
33.Je (13) (also known as Gê, Jêan, Gêan, Ye)
34.Jivaroan (2) (also known as Hívaro)
36.Kaliana (also known as Caliana, Cariana, Sapé, Chirichano)
37.Kapixaná (Brazil: Rondônia) (also known as Kanoé, Kapishaná)
39.Katukinan (3) (also known as Catuquinan)
40.Kawésqar (Chile) (Kaweskar, Alacaluf, Qawasqar, Halawalip, Aksaná, Hekaine)
41.Kwaza language (Koayá) (Brazil: Rondônia)
42.Leco (Lapalapa, Leko)
43.Lule (Argentina) (also known as Tonocoté)
44.Maipurean (South America & Caribbean) (64) (also known as Maipuran, Arawakan, Anahuacan)
45.Maku language (also known as Macu)
46.Malibú (also known as Malibu)
47.Mapudungu (Chile, Argentina) (also known as Araucanian, Mapuche, Huilliche)
48.Mascoyan (5) (also known as Maskóian, Mascoian)
49.Matacoan (4) (also known as Mataguayan)
50.Maxakalían (3) (also known as Mashakalían)
51.Mosetenan (also known as Mosetén)
52.Movima (Bolivia)
53.Munichi (Peru) (also known as Muniche)
54.Muran (4)
55.Mutú (also known as Loco)
56.Nambiquaran (5)
57.Nonuya (Peru, Colombia)
59.Paez (also known as Nasa Yuwe)
60.Pano-Tacanan (33)
61.Panzaleo (Ecuador) (also known as Latacunga, Quito, Pansaleo)
64.Puinavean (8) (also known as Makú)
65.Quechuan (46)
66.Resígaro (Colombia-Peru border area)
68.Saliban (2) (also known as Sálivan)
69.Salumã (Brazil)
70.Taushiro (Peru) (also known as Pinchi, Pinche)
71.Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) (also known as Magta, Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukna, Tukuna)
72.Tucanoan (15)
73.Trumai (Brazil: Xingu, Mato Grosso)
74.Tupian (70, including Guaraní)
75.Urarina (also known as Shimacu, Itukale, Shimaku)
77.Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela) (also known as Guarao)
78.Wayuu (Venezuela and Colombia)
79.Witotoan (6) (also known as Huitotoan, Bora-Witótoan)
80.Yaghan (Chile) (also known as Yámana)
81.Yaruro (also known as Jaruro)
82.Yanomaman (4)
83.Yuracare (Bolivia)
84.Zamucoan (2)
85.Zaparoan (5) (also known as Záparo)

Living indigienous language families of Central America and Mexico and not U.S. or Canada:

1.Bribri (Costa Rica)
2.Boruca (Costa Rica)
3.Chibchan (Central America & South America) (22)
4.Guaicurian (8)
5.Huetar (Costa Rica)
9.Maratino (northeastern Mexico)
10.Mayan (31)
12.Mixe-Zoquean (19)
13.Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas)
14.Oto-Manguean (27)
16.Quinigua (northeast Mexico)
18.Tequistlatecan (3)
19.Totonacan (2)

Living indigienous language families of the U.S., Canada and Greenland:

1.Algic (30) 180,000 speakers; Northeast U.S. and Eastern Canada
2.Caddoan (5) 65 speakers; Great Plains
3.Chimakuan (2) 10 speakers; Washington State
4.Chinookan (3) 7 speakers; Pacific Northwest
5.Eskimo-Aleut (7) 110,000 speakers; Artic
6.Haida 320 speakers; Alaskan coastal islands and neighboring Canada
7.Iroquoian (11) 26,000 speakers; Northwest United States
8.Karuk 335 speakers; California
9.Keresan (2) 7971 speakers; New Mexico
10.Kiowa-Tanoan (7) 5535 speakers; Southeast United States
11.Kutenai 10 speakers; Idaho-Montana-British Columbia
12.Maiduan (4) 5 speakers; Northern California
13.Muskogean (9) 26,103 speakers; Southeast United States;
14.Na-Dené (United States, Canada & Mexico) (39); 200,000 Northwest and Southwest U.S.
15.Palaihnihan (2) 8 speakers; NE California
16.Plateau Penutian (4) (also known as Shahapwailutan) 301 speakers; Pacific NW;
17.Pomoan (7) 255 speakers; NW California;
18.Salishan (23) 100 speakers; Greater Seattle
19.Siouan-Catawban (19) 33465 speakers; Central Plains of United States;
20.Tsimshianic (2) 2170 speakers; British Columbia coast;
21.Utian (15) (also known as Miwok-Costanoan) Dozens of speakers; California
23.Uto-Aztecan (33) (United States and Mexico) 1.95 million speakers; Southwest U.S. and Mexico
24.Wakashan (7) 1,063 speakers; British Columbia Coast;
25.Washo 252 speakers; CA-NV border
26.Wintuan (4) 5-6 speakers; Sacramento Valley;
27.Yokutsan (3) thousands of speakers; California
28.Yuchi 5 speakers; Southeast United States
29.Yuman-Cochimí (11) (United States and Mexico) 1,741 speakers; Grand Canyon and Baja California;
30.Zuni 9551 speakers; NM and AZ

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